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Database Management Basics

Database management is a system of managing information that supports a business’s operations. It involves storing data and distribution to users and application programs, modifying it as necessary, monitoring changes in the data and preventing it from becoming damaged due to unexpected failure. It is one component of a company’s informational infrastructure, which supports decision-making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others developed the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed the storage and retrieve large amounts data for a broad range of purposes, ranging from calculating inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database consists of tables that arrange data according to a particular scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of fields, referred to as attributes, that contain information about data entities. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most used database type currently. This model is based upon normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It also makes it easier to update data since it eliminates the necessity of changing several databases.

Most DBMSs support multiple database types by providing different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability, and other operational issues, including the physical layout of the database. The external level focuses on how the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of different external views based on different data models. It could include virtual tables that are computed using generic data to improve the performance.

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